Rosemarie R. Parse Human Becoming theory critique

Rosemarie R. Parse Human Becoming theory critique


Select one of the models listed on the table in Meleis (Table 10-1, page 177) and critique the theory you have selected to present.

Selected Theory is:  Rosemarie R. Parse

Address all criteria presented in the model you select.


For Barnum that includes the Internal Criticism and External Criticism, Chinn and Kramer includes Description of Theory and Critical Reflection, Fawcett you should complete Analysis & Evaluation of Nursing Models if you are using a model  or Analysis & Evaluation of Nursing Theories if you are using a theory which most of you are using, and Whall  you should complete Criteria for Practice Theory, Criteria for Middle-Range Theory or Critieria for Conceptual Models which every is appropriate for your theory.

Assignment Details:

  • Maximum length five (5) pages
  • APA format


  1. Describes theory and rationale for selection
  2. Identifies model for critique
  3. Uses criteria for critique according to mode
  4. Minimal grammar and spelling errors; adheres to page limit
  5. Provides Appropriate Reference List in APA format
  6. Rosemarie R. Parse Human Becoming theory critique
  7. APA formatting


Rosemarie R. Parse developed the theory of Human Becoming in 1981. The theory was formally known as the Man-Living-Health Theory until 1992 when it was changed (Parse, 2015). Tenets and theories of Rosemarie R. Parse’s theory borrowed from the principles and concepts of Roger and the phenomenon of existence. She has extensively written the Human Becoming theory in multiple literature materials including journals, her website, and books. This paper consists of a description, evaluation, and analysis of Human Becoming theory with regard to the guidelines of Chinn and Kramer. Rosemarie R. Parse Human Becoming theory critique.

The Chinn and Kramer model was utilized in the analysis of Parse’s Human Becoming theory. This model was formulated in 1983 by Maenoa Kramer and Peggy Chinn and it consists of a two-step process for theory evaluation. The first step entails theory description whereby assumptions, concepts, purpose, structure relationships and definitions are explored (Im, 2015). The second step is characterized by critical reflection whereby, the purpose of the theory is scrutinized. This model has been used to critique most of the traditional nursing theories and thus is effective in criticizing the Human Becoming Theory.


This description of Parse’s Theory of Human Becoming section involves the identification of the purpose, definition of terms and phrases, explanation of concepts, structure, relationships, and assumptions related to the theory. The purpose of the Human Becoming Theory was developed to shift the perspective of a person to human science from the medical model (Parse, 2015). Parse sought to relate situations with the factors around them whereby, human beings are considered as participants. Rosemarie R. Parse Human Becoming theory critique. The Human Becoming Theory views the role of nurses as facilitation of healthcare decision making following the current situation and health status. As such, the nursing practice goal according to Parse theory of Human Becoming is to enhance the quality of life, based on the personal perspective of the patient. It offers alternatives to bio-psycho-social-spiritual and conventional bio-medical approaches of other theoretical frameworks of nursing.

Concepts define the central issues relating to the Human Becoming theory. Nursing theories define four concepts according to Fawcett which include; nursing, environment, health and person (Parse, 2015). The human becoming theory defines the environment as everything in the person, meaning that they are inseparable, evolve with and complement each other as they create experiences. The concept of health is related to the way of life and values which impact the wellness of an individual. Moreover, the concept of the nursing paradigm is considered by the theory of human becoming as the art of performing basic science through caring, loving and interaction of people to improve the quality of life. The person is obviously the center of Parse’s theory and is perceived as more than the summation of body parts.

Three main assumptions made by the Human Becoming theory include meaning, rhythmicity, and transcendence. The meaning assumption entails the free search for personal meaning in situations. It also presumes that personal lived experiences define the meaning of human’s reality and the surrounding and human beings in it co-create (Parse, 2015). Rhythmicity assumptions of Human becoming theory presume that mutual processes of interaction between the universe and the people are co-created by human beings in rhythmical patterns. Lastly, the transcendence stipulates that emerging possibilities are multidimensionally co-transcending with humans (Parse, 2015). It describes the transformation of people beyond their set limits.

Other assumptions relate to man and becoming. Theoretical assumptions about man state that human is coexisting while co-constituting rhythmical patterns with the universe, the human is open, freely choosing meaning in situation, bearing responsibility for decisions, the human is unitary, continuously co-constituting patterns of relating and the human is transcending multidimensionally with the possible (Current Nursing, 2011). Assumptions of becoming focused on becoming as unitary human’s emerging and human-living-health. It also assumes that becoming is an intersubjective process of transcending with the possible, the human’s patterns of relating value priorities and a rhythmically co-constituting human-universe process.

Critical Reflection

This critical reflection section of the paper seeks to provide an analysis of the clarity of the theory, its accessibility, generalizability, and simplicity with regard to the description explored in the first section. Human Becoming theory presents a transformative approach to all nursing levels.  It does not seek to fix problems; a character that differentiates it from the traditional nursing process. Rosemarie R. Parse Human Becoming theory critique. Instead, it allows nurse practitioners to practice according to the perspectives of the patient. Nurses are thus able to guide individuals towards achieving the life they perceive as quality based on their experiences. Practitioners are guided by the art of human becoming characterized by unfolding meaning, transcendence and synchronizing rhythms (Parse, 2015) Rosemarie R. Parse Human Becoming theory critique.

Human Becoming theory presents clear relationships that are consistent with the logical precision research methodology to the theoretical structures, principles, assumptions and practice dimensions. The familiarity of terminologies makes concepts clearer to the reader. Moreover, the Human Being theory is complex. However, simplicity is achieved through the differentiation of simultaneity and totality paradigms as well as the creation of nine assumptions from the analysis of concepts, principles, and tenets. Concepts are related to each other by theoretical principles.

On generalizability, Parse’s theory of human becoming is applicable to all human beings since its focus is on the unitarily of humans and their lived experiences (Parse, 2015). Consequently, the accessibility of the Human Being theory is limited in novice nurses. As such, it is not applied in the emergency room and acute care. The derivable consequence of this theory is associated with critical thinking of nurses in giving the correct guidance to patients as they select their preferable life. Rosemarie R. Parse Human Becoming theory critique. Critical thinking seeks to find meaning, mobilizes transcendence and synchronizes rhythms without judgment. On social significance, Parse’s theory makes a relevant contribution to the lives of nurses and patients. It is also congruence with personal, professional and social values which helps fulfill the nursing role expectations.

Strengths and Weaknesses

One of the strengths of Parse’s Human Becoming theory is that it differentiates other disciplines from nursing. It also provides assumptions, concepts, and principles of nursing practice and provides useful information with guidelines on administration sound practice (Current Nursing, 2011). Besides, it offers research methodologies and supports the inquiry of other theories from an effective framework.

The weaknesses include that it provides closed circle research with no room for expansion. Its results are also difficult to quantify and it does not use the nursing diagnoses. Additionally, the theory focuses on generalizes and undermines the uniqueness of an individual. It is not accessible and applicable in several healthcare departments including the emergency, acute acre and novice nursing (Current Nursing, 2011). Rosemarie R. Parse Human Becoming theory critique.


Theory critique using the Chinn and Kramer guidelines helps in describing and reflecting relevant aspects of theories.  The paper has criticized the Human Being theory effectively providing the purpose, concepts, assumptions and description. The weaknesses, strengths and characteristics reveal the simplicity, accessibility, social importance, clarity and generalizability of the theory and its significance in nursing practice. Rosemarie R. Parse Human Becoming theory critique.



Current Nursing (2011) Human Becoming Theory. Retrieved on February 12, 2019

Im, E. O. (2015). The current status of theory evaluation in nursing. Journal of advanced nursing71(10), 2268-2278.

Parse, R. R. (2015). Rosemarie Rizzo Parse’s human becoming paradigm. Nursing theories and nursing practice, 263-277. Rosemarie R. Parse Human Becoming theory critique.


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