MN 576 – Cervical Cancer Essay

MN 576 – Cervical Cancer Essay

Cervical cancer affects the cells in the cervix and the T zone of the cervix (in between the ectocervix and endocervix)

Cervical cancer at one time was the most common cancers affecting women, until 1950s when papanicolaor (pap) smears were introduced. George Papanikolaou was the founder of the pap smear in 1928 after months of observing his wife’s cervical cells under a microscope.

One of the most preventable types of cancer, if found early it is highly treatable

HPV is about 99% of the cause of cervical cancer MN 576 – Cervical Cancer Essay

Cervical cancer is ranked 14th in cancer frequency


Cervical Cancer Screening

Cervical cancer screening is recommended for women between the ages of 21- 65 years old and is done to detect abnormal cells (precancerous cells) which can turn into cancerous cells

All women are at risk for cervical cancer but it occurs more often in women over the age of 30 years old.

Cervical cancer affects not only women but their family as well

Since the pap smear was introduced in the 1950s death rates as a result of cervical cancer have reduced by 70%, saving thousands of women from death MN 576 – Cervical Cancer Essay

Cervical cancer screening has declined in the last 10 years and there needs to be more awareness

Cervical Cancer Screening Methods

Liquid based cytology- Cervix cells are scraped and preserved in liquid before sent to lab to be analyzed

Pap smear- Cervical cells are scraped and analyzed under a microscope (Microscope picture)

Cervical Cancer Screening Guidelines

Ages 21- 29 Ages 30-65 Age 65- older
Routine pap Q 3 years if results are normal Routine pap with HPV reflex Q 5 years.  IF HPV positive then screening is done Q 12 months. Not recommended if hysterectomy was done with removal of cervix and no history of high risk cervical cancer.
If abnormal cells are detected, pap with HPV reflex is done every 12 months until 2 consecutive negative results.


Or pap test alone Q 3 years or HPV alone Q 5 years. MN 576 – Cervical Cancer Essay


General Statistics US

53.8% of screening eligible women ages 21-29 was current with their cervical screening in 2016

64.6 % of screening eligible women ages 30-65 years old was current with their cervical screening in 2016

A little of half of women ages 21-29 in the US were up- to-date with cervical screenings MN 576 – Cervical Cancer Essay

2/3 of women ages 30-65 in the US were up-to-date with cervical screening

Steady decrease in the amount of cervical screenings in the last 15 years in the younger age group (25-49), where the incidence rate of cervical cancer cases is highest.



Racial Disparities Statistics

African American women are 50% less likely to be up to date with cervical screening compared to white women

Asian women are 30 % less likely to be up to date with cervical screening compared to white women

Ethnic minority women are less likely to get cervical screening MN 576 – Cervical Cancer Essay


Impact on Women

In the US, 4,000 women die from cervical cancer a year

Ages 35-64 years old with regular screening have a 67% reduction in stage 1 A cancer and a 95% reduction in stage 3 cancer or worse

Cervical cancer currently prevents 70% of cervical cancer related death if done regularly

Cervical screening is responsible for the reduction of 492,000 cases of cervical cancer over the past 3 decades

When screened and detected at an early stage, the 5 year survival rate for invasive cervical cancer is 92%

Issues Impacting Screenings

Cost- Women without health insurance, living in poverty, or low income are less likely to get cervical cancer screening MN 576 – Cervical Cancer Essay

Cervical cancer screening tests is mandated by the Affordable Care Act as of 2010, but anything prior is not required

Lack of knowledge/ Awareness- Patients are not aware of the importance of screening for cervical cancer and the risk of not getting screened.

Awareness about cervical cancer and its screenings are lower amongst women from Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic backgrounds

More awareness in the school system or at the health clinics, primary care offices and work places would be beneficial.

Patients think that the HPV vaccines cover them for developing cervical cancer so they opt out of screening.

Fear – Women are afraid to get screened because of the perceived pain, anxiety or the fear of knowing they have a cancer or abnormal cell growth, so they rather just not know.

Body Image –35 % of women are opting out of cervical screening because they are embarrassed of their bodies, 38% because of what their vulva looked like and 31% were opting out over smelling ‘normally’. MN 576 – Cervical Cancer Essay

Lack of access to screenings – Lack of gynecologists in rural areas impaired access to cervical cancer screening. Patients are not willing to travel a few hours to get the care they need.

In order to improve cervical cancer screening rates in clinical settings, sufficient resources for cervical cancer screening need to be allocated in each municipality

Time- Difficult for women to get off of work, find care for their children, a lot of clinics are not open late or on weekends. MN 576 – Cervical Cancer Essay

Open chat
WhatsApp chat +1 908-954-5454
We are online
Our papers are plagiarism-free, and our service is private and confidential. Do you need any writing help?