Empirical referents definition essay

Empirical referents definition essay

Define empirical referents


Empirical referents is a research term for the measurable aspect that represents a concept of interest. In fact, they refer to quantifiable features that represent the changes of interest in a concept (Brush et al., 2011).  For instance, in seeking to measure pain, they would be objective and subjective empirical referents that quantify pain. The objective empirical referents would refer to the measures of pain that an independent observer notes while subjective empirical referents would refer to how the patient interprets the pain in terms of verbal and non-verbal expressions and experiences. In this case, pain is the concept of interest while the subjective and objective empirical referents are the measurable pain attributes. Empirical referents definition essay. The attributes could include displeasure, discomfort, fear of rejection, tissue damage, neurophysiological indicators, and emotional distress (Walker & Avant, 2005). It is notable that although empirical referents are intended to present accurate quantitative and comparative representations of the concept of interest, they are influenced by antecedents of the individual participants and subjects that could include demographic characteristics and environmental influences. Despite this shortcoming, it is important to note that empirical referents present a valuable opportunity for presenting a quantifiable perspective that helps in understanding all the components within any concept of interest to a researcher (Liu et al., 2014). In this respect, an empirical referent is a measurable approach for detailing the components and occurrences of a concept, acting as a tool that quantifies the processes associated with the concept and their outcomes Empirical referents definition essay.


Brush, B., Kirk, K., Gultekin, L. & Baiardi, J. (2011). Overcoming: a concept analysis. Nurs Forum. 46(3), 160-168. doi: 10.1111/j.1744-6198.2011.00227.x

Liu, Y., Avant, K., Aungsuroch, Y., Zhang, X-Y. & Jiang, P. (2014). Patient outcomes in the field of nursing: a concept analysis. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 1(1), 69-74. doi: 10.1016/j.ijnss.2014.02.006

Walker, L. O., & Avant, K., (2005). Strategies for theory construction in nursing (4th ed.). Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice Hall. Empirical referents definition essay.

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